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The chloralkali industry

All electrochemical systems involve the transfer of electrons in a reacting system. In many systems, the reactions occur in a region known as the cell, where the transfer of electrons occurs at electrodes. Skip to main content.

Electrode Potentials

Module Electrochemistry. Already, microfluidicians, technologists, chemists, and biologists are taking Already, microfluidicians, technologists, chemists, and biologists are taking advantage of these recent advances for fundamental or applied broad-spectrum studies ranging from physics to molecular diagnostics.

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Micrometric or even nanometric dimensions of the channels and electrodes used in miniaturized systems improve performance metrics such as analysis time, sensitivity, cost, and the required sample volume. This is especially true for biological sample processing extraction, separation, concentration, analytical detection, etc. This Research Topic seeks to highlight the application of micro nanofluidics to devices that exploit electrochemistry or bioelectrochemistry.

Gamry Electrochemical Instruments: Application-Tech Notes

For instance, we welcome submissions that deepen our fundamental understanding of mass transfer, transport phenomena at the micro nanoscale, and reaction kinetics at micro nanoelectrodes. In a mercury cell the sodium dissolves in the liquid mercury to form a liquid amalgam of the two metals. Video: This method only produces a fraction of the chlorine and sodium hydroxide that is used by industry as it has certain disadvantages:. In the past the effluent was released into lakes and rivers, causing mercury to accumulate in fish and other animals feeding on the fish.

Application Notes

Today, the brine is treated before it is discharged so that the environmental impact is lower. To separate the chlorine from the sodium hydroxide, the two half-cells were traditionally separated by a porous asbestos diaphragm, which needed to be replaced every two months. This was damaging to the environment, as large quantities of asbestos had to be disposed. Asbestos is toxic to humans, and causes cancer and lung problems. Today, the asbestos is being replaced by other polymers, which do not need to be replaced as often, and are not toxic.

The membrane cell Figure The main differences are:.

Study of Electrochemistry in Class 12

The chloride ions cannot pass through the membrane, so the chlorine does not come into contact with the sodium hydroxide in the cathode compartment. The sodium hydroxide is removed from the cell. The overall equation is as follows:. Sign up to get a head start on bursary and career opportunities.

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Use Siyavula Practice to get the best marks possible. Refer to the flow diagram, which shows the reactions that take place in the membrane cell, and then answer the questions that follow.

Summarise what you have learnt about the three types of cells in the chloralkali industry by completing the table below:. Chlorine is produced industrially by the electrolysis of brine. Chlorine is used to purify drinking water and swimming pool water.

A common way of treating pool water is by adding 'granular chlorine'. Give an equation showing how this salt dissolves in water.

Indicate the phase of each substance in the equation.