Chemical agents Munitions -- Management -- Congresses. Holm U. Libby and Mark D. Dell'orco and T. Spontarelli [et al. Mackova and J. Burkhard [et al. Guenegou, A. Jardy and M. Caude [et al. Gowda and Francis W. Holm App. Includes bibliographical references and index. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links None of your libraries hold this item.
Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Inert gases may pass from the internal containers at their lowermost edge and into the second container to be exhausted. According to one feature of this embodiment, baffling may be added to the lower portion of the containers to provide separation between the exhaust from the venturi educators and the inlet of the liquid pump. This baffling prevents exhaust gases from becoming entrained in the recirculating liquid which could result in cavitation in the pump. Baffling may also be used between the internal containers and second container to disperse gases exhausting from the internal containers.
This baffling creates additional surface area in the exhausted gas increasing the probability of reaction and system efficiency. According to another feature of this embodiment, the liquid treatment reagent level is preferably filled to approximately one half of the total capacity of the containers.
In operation, liquid treatment reagent from the internal containers is displaced into the region defined between the outer surface of the internal containers and the inner surface of the second container. The volume of the region is at least equal to that of the volume of liquid originally contained in the internal containers which prevents liquid from being displaced through the container exhaust. In the event of a failure of the liquid pump or cessation of flow through one or more of the venturi educators under conditions of vacuum, liquid treatment reagent in the region returns to the original equilibrium level in the internal containers and is not pulled back onto the gas inlet piping.
A technical advantage of the above-described embodiments is that the potential for suckback of a reactive liquid in an uncontrolled manner is eliminated.
Another advantage is that a simple, inexpensive, reliable, fail safe treatment system is available for hazardous liquids and gases. Further objects, features, and advantages of the present invention will be understood from the detailed description of the preferred embodiments of the present invention and from the figures. According to one embodiment of the present invention, a venturi eduction and scrubbing system is depicted in FIG. System comprises a plurality of venturi eductors 28 which are connected via inlet piping 30 to a waste gas or liquid container not shown.
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The waste gas or liquid container may comprise any type of waste containment vessel for secure handling of hazardous or polluted materials. As shown in FIG. Venturi exhaust piping 34 provides fluid communication between the interior of drain container 32 and venturi eductors A connection piping 36 provides fluid communication between a bottom portion 33 of drain container 32 and a top portion 35 of source container Connection piping 36 comprises an exhaust end 37 which may extend through top portion 35 of source container 38 into the interior of source container 38 as depicted in FIG.
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A liquid circulating pump 40 may be provided to pump liquid from source container 38 to venturi eductors A source piping 44 provides fluid communication between source container 38 and the inlet side of liquid circulating pump A venturi input piping 46 provides fluid communication between liquid circulating pump 40 and venturi eductors As such, drain container 32, source container 38, liquid circulating pump 40, and venturi eductors 28 may be in serial fluid communication with each other to form a continuous loop through which liquid treatment reagent travels.
Source container 38 may also be provided with an exhaust piping 48 for releasing gases. Exhaust piping 48 may be connected to various mechanisms for safely disposing or containing exhausted gases. The materials of construction for exhaust piping 48 and the other pipings and components used in the present invention may be selected based on the specific application.
For most applications, a coated steel is preferred. Other less demanding applications may incorporate PVC piping, for example. The venturi eductors are commonly made of brass or PVC, although other materials may also be used. Because some liquid treatment reagent may escape through exhaust piping 48, it may be desirable to place a containment mechanism between the interior of source container 38 and exhaust piping In one embodiment, a plurality of horizontally positioned perforated baffle plates 54 may be disposed in source container 38 above exhaust end 37 of connection piping 36 in the space between connection piping 36 and the interior wall of source container This space may be annular in shape if source container 38 is cylindrical, for example.
Also, a single perforated baffle plate 54 may be used. Also, the one or more baffle plates 54 may be angularly disposed. Baffle plates 54 limit the amount of liquid treatment reagent which is exhausted through exhaust piping One embodiment of a venturi eductor 28 for use in the present invention is shown in FIG.
A circulating liquid treatment reagent enters venturi eductor 28 through venturi input The diameter of venturi input 46 diminishes as the liquid treatment reagent flows through and thus the liquid treatment reagent is accelerated. The accelerated liquid treatment reagent is expelled from venturi input 46 through a nozzle 50 into a venturi The flow of the liquid treatment reagent through venturi 52 creates a low pressure area which creates suction in inlet piping The suction on inlet piping 30 draws the waste gas or liquid into venturi eductor 28 from the waste gas or liquid inlet in the direction of arrow Waste gas or liquid is drawn from inlet piping 30 into venturi eductor The waste gas or liquid combines with liquid treatment reagent in venturi eductor The combined waste gas or liquid and liquid treatment reagent product exit venturi eductor 28 through venturi exhaust piping Venturi eductor 28 may comprise a Teel Model 2P, for example.
Other brands and types of venturi eductors may also be used. The venturi eduction and scrubbing system as shown in FIG. A liquid treatment reagent is provided in source container 38 and drain container In a preferred embodiment, drain and source containers 32 and 38 may be about the same size. The total liquid volume is preferably equal to about one half of the total volume of containers 32 and Liquid treatment reagent is a chemically reactive liquid such as a caustic or acidic or oxidizing solution.
Other reagents used for treatment of potentially hazardous waste gas and liquid may also be used. Liquid circulating pump 40 draws liquid treatment reagent from source container 38 through source piping 44 and forces it through venturi input The liquid treatment reagent flows through venturi eductors 28 which in turn draws waste gas or liquid from inlet piping Liquid treatment reagent displaces from drain container 32 to source container 38 based on the volume of gases exhausted from venturi eductors Waste gases are exhausted through exhaust piping 48 and may be subjected to further processing, if desired.
As described above, during operation, the flow of liquid treatment reagent through venturi eductors 28 creates a vacuum in inlet piping When liquid circulating pump 40 is stopped or circulation of the liquid treatment reagent ceases, liquid treatment reagent returns to drain container 32 via connection piping 36 until an equilibrium level is obtained with source container Because the volume of liquid treatment reagent has been selected to be about half of the total volume of drain and source containers 32 and 38, the equilibrium level is well below inlet piping Thus, liquid does not enter inlet piping 30 and cannot be drawn into the waste containment vessel.
Secondary containment against possible liquid spill of the liquid treatment reagent may be provided by a reserve container 56 whose volume exceeds the liquid capacity of venturi eduction and scrubbing system Reserve container 56 may be shaped and positioned to catch any spills which may be expelled from venturi eduction and scrubbing system It is also possible to provide a plurality of containers in serial fluid communication. Like numbered elements represent like elements of FIG. Drain container 32 is connected in serial fluid communication with one or more intermediate drain containers 37 by connection piping 36a.
Intermediate drain container 37 is connected in fluid communication with source container 38 by connection piping 36b. If more than one intermediate drain container 37 is used, each is preferably connected in serial fluid communication in the manner as depicted in FIG.
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Another embodiment of the present invention is shown in FIG. One or more venturi eductors 62 may be mounted on outer container Exhaust from venturi eductors 62 enters an internal container 64 disposed inside outer container 60 through venturi exhaust piping Internal container 64 may comprise a top wall portion 61, one or more openings 63 in top wall portion 61, a side wall portion 65, and an end portion Internal container 64 may be connected to venturi eductors 62 at the one or more openings 63 by venturi exhaust piping Internal container 64 opens into outer container 60 such that end portion 67 is disposed above a bottom portion 71 of outer container In a preferred embodiment, the volume inside internal container 64 bounded by top wall portion 61, side wall portion 65, and an imaginary plane 73 connecting end portions 67 and a side wall 83 of outer container 60 is approximately equal to the volume of the space defined between an inner surface 59 of outer container 60, top wall portion 61, side wall portion 65 and imaginary plane A suction inlet 76 is connected to venturi eductor Suction inlet 76 is connected to a waste container not shown which contains the waste gas or liquid to be neutralized.
Because the force of the output from venturi eductors 62 may be relatively strong, a solid baffle plate 78 may be provided between end portion 67 of internal container 64 and source piping 70 to prevent gas from exiting outer container 60 through source piping Baffle plate 78 thus prevents waste gas from entering liquid pump A perforated baffling system 82 may be provided to support solid baffle plate 78 and to further assist in preventing waste gas from escaping from outer container Source piping 70 may be connected to a liquid pump Liquid pump 72 may be connected via liquid treatment reagent piping 74 to a venturi inlet 66 of venturi eductor Thereby, interior container 64, outer container 60, liquid pump 72, and venturi eductors 62 may be in serial fluid communication with each other to form a continuous loop through which the liquid treatment reagent travels.
Exhaust piping 80 may also be provided for release of gas to an exhaust treatment system where waste gas may be subjected to further processing, if desired. As gases disperse through the space between internal container 64 and inner surface 61 of outer container 60, it may be desirable to provide perforated baffling to enhance dispersion. In one embodiment of the present invention, venturi eduction and scrubbing system further comprises perforated baffling Baffling 84 is provided to assist in dispersing the waste gas from the liquid treatment reagent for release through exhaust piping Perforated baffling 84 may comprise one or more horizontally disposed baffle plates.
Also, perforated baffling 84 may be angularly disposed.
Other mechanisms for enhancing dispersion may also be used. Secondary containment against possible liquid spill of the liquid treatment reagent may be provided by reserve container 56 whose volume exceeds the liquid capacity of venturi eduction and scrubbing system Venturi eduction and scrubbing system as shown in FIG. Preferably, a volume of liquid treatment reagent approximately equal to one half of the volume of outer container 60 is provided in the system comprising outer container 60 and interior container When the pump is not operating, the liquid treatment reagent settles to equilibrium within outer container 60 and inner container During operation, however, liquid treatment reagent is circulated from outer container 60 via source piping 70 by liquid pump Liquid pump 72 forces liquid treatment reagent through liquid treatment reagent piping 74 into venturi inlet 66 of venturi eductors Flow of the liquid treatment reagent through venturi eductors 62 creates a low pressure area and suction in suction inlet Waste liquids or gases are drawn into venturi eductors 62 through suction inlet 76 as a result of the suction generated by venturi eductors The waste liquids or gases react with the liquid treatment reagent which neutralizes the hazardous materials in the waste liquids or gases.
The liquid treatment reagent exits venturi eductors 62 through venturi exhaust pipe s 68 into internal container s As more gas exhausts from venturi eductors 62, the liquid treatment reagent may be forced from internal container 64 into the space between internal container 64 and the walls of outer container Failure of liquid pump 72 or interruption of liquid treatment reagent under vacuum conditions causes the liquid treatment reagent to return to its original equilibrium level. No liquid is sucked into suction pipe An advantage of this embodiment is that only one external vessel may be used.
Further, any leakage from internal container 64 is caught by outer container In another embodiment, multiple venturi eductors may be included in these systems instead of one or two venturi eductors. The venturi eductors may exhaust into separate internal containers, several common internal containers, or into a single common internal container, for example. In another embodiment, it may be desirable to provide a plurality of internal containers. Accordingly, another embodiment is depicted in FIG. In FIG.
In this embodiment, the volume defined between inner wall 59 of outer container 60, side walls portions 65a and 65b, top walls portions 61a and 61b and imaginary plane 73 is at least as large as the total volume of internal containers 64a and 64b. The volume of internal container 64a is defined by top wall portion 61a, side wall portion 65a and imaginary plane 73 and the volume of internal container 64b is defined by top wall portion 61a, side wall portion 65a and imaginary plane In this embodiment each internal container is connected to one and only one venturi eductor Also, each internal container 64a and 64b may be connected to a plurality of venturi eductors Also, a plurality of venturi eductors 62 may be connected to a single internal container disposed in outer container In this embodiment, serial fluid communication is provided from internal containers 64a and 64b in parallel , outer container 60, liquid pump 72 and venturi eductors 62a and 62b in parallel.
It is also possible to provide more than two internal containers. In each embodiment, it may be desirable to provide each of the internal containers in parallel. If a plurality of venturi eductors are provided, the venturi eductors are preferably arranged in parallel as well. In another embodiment, an internal container may be provided in the embodiment of FIGS. For example, one or more internal containers 64 may be connected to venturi exhaust piping 34 and be disposed inside drain container In this embodiment, exhaust piping 48 may be provided in drain container 32 or source container 38 or both.
Another embodiment incorporates an additional scrubbing method by spraying liquid reagent on top of baffles 54 of FIGS.