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Contact seller. Visit Shop. See other items More See all. Item information Condition:. Current psychometric measurement of LH strategy involves an unwarranted conflation of functional i.

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Thus, common psychometric measurement instruments of LH strategy including ALHB, mini-K, and HKKS incorrectly assume reflective measurement models implying that each individual proximate mechanism is conceptually equivalent and, by extension, is a locally independent measurement of the latent LH strategy. In doing so, LH strategy becomes a descriptive construct, giving a meaningful description rather than causal explanation for the observed correlations between LH traits. Acknowledging K-factors as formative and as ultimate prevents conceptual errors, such as inappropriate causal inferences and inappropriate extensions of empirical findings toward theory development.

The use of such a formative measurement model, as discussed, has direct consequences for the parameter estimates in regression models including a psychometric measurement of the K-factor. Although we have shown conceptual problems in considering K-factors measures of LH strategy, we are not disputing that LH strategy theoretically could correspond to a discrete proximate mechanism.

Additionally, our concerns with the psychometric approach do not extend to developmental approaches aiming to explain variation in LH strategies e. However, we leave open the empirical question of whether variation in the bundle of proximate mechanisms captured by K-scales is further reducible to a single proximate mechanism e.

If such a reduction is not possible, researchers need to examine hypotheses about these mechanisms separately as we have suggested. If reduction to a single mechanism is possible, creating latent variable models of LH strategy would be feasible, but it would need to measure LH strategy through direct causal manifestations of such a mechanism.

Nonetheless, analyses of K-factor instruments by Copping et al. What are other possible new directions for the psychometrics of LH strategies? Although this might be a step LH research needs to take to conceptually align theory with measurement, the value of such descriptive constructs in psychological research is far from clear.

In particular, can a descriptive construct summarizing various conceptually different sources of information about individuals be fruitfully used as a predictor of behavioral outcomes? For psychologists interested in examining psychological constructs as causal antecedents of behavior to further psychological theory, such descriptive variables may be of little theoretical value. As Richardson et al. Other scholars e. Instead, network models take an intermediate ontological position; they define constructs in terms of a network of multiple interacting manifestations.

This approach might prove to be of particular value to researchers interested in modeling functionally defined constructs, such as LH strategy, because functions may very well be examined through a network of proximate mechanisms. In conclusion, the conflation of ultimate and proximate causes in the evolutionary behavioral sciences is not a problem unique to LH measurement for a discussion, see Scott-Phillips et al.

Proximate models of behavior lose their conceptual clarity—and indeed their causal explanatory potential—when ultimate factors referring to fitness effects are included. How to properly use ultimate explanations in proximate empirical models remains an important issue for progress in evolutionary behavioral science. In our view, the specification of formative measurement models when describing and testing functionally defined constructs might be a first important conceptual step.

The authors are thankful to George Richardson for motivating correspondence prior to the development of this manuscript. We are also thankful to three anonymous reviewers for valuable comments on an earlier version of this paper. As part of his dissertation work, he focussed on the applications of evolutionary theory in the field of health psychology. Further research interests include conceptual, methodological, and psychometric issues relevant to evolutionary approaches to psychology.

His current research mainly focuses on the topic of sustainable employability, and specifically its definition, its measurement as a formative construct, and its predictors. Further research interests include work and organizational and social psychology, evolutionary approaches to behaviour, and psychometrics. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Human Nature Hawthorne, N. Hum Nat. Published online Nov Stefan L. Gruijters 1, 2 and Bram P.

Fleuren 1. Bram P. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Gruijters, Email: ln. Corresponding author. Abstract Within evolutionary biology, life-history theory is used to explain cross-species differences in allocation strategies regarding reproduction, maturation, and survival. Keywords: Life history strategy, Ultimate-proximate distinction, Measurement models, Psychometrics, Formative models, Latent variables, Validity.

Table 1 The mini-K questionnaire from Figueredo et al.

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Item 1. I can often tell how things will turn out.

I try to understand how I got into a situation to figure out how to handle it. I often find the bright side to a bad situation. I often make plans in advance. I avoid taking risks.

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While growing up, I had a close and warm relationship with my biological mother. While growing up, I had a close and warm relationship with my biological father. I have a close and warm relationship with my own children. I have a close and warm romantic relationship with my sexual partner. I would rather have one than several sexual relationships at a time. I have to be closely attached to someone before I am comfortable having sex with them. I am often in social contact with my blood relatives.

I often get emotional support and practical help from my blood relatives. I often give emotional support and practical help to my blood relatives. I am often in social contact with my friends. I often get emotional support and practical help from my friends. I often give emotional support and practical help to my friends. I am closely connected to and involved in my community. I am closely connected to and involved in my religion. Open in a separate window. Modeling Life-History Strategy as a Proximate Variable The question of whether LH strategy can qualify as a reflective latent variable is complicated by the multiple levels of analyses evolutionary science involves in its research.

An Alternative Approach: Formative Models To deflate the proximate-ultimate distinction in K-factor models, we suggest that LH strategy could be modeled as a formative construct, one that is descriptive of an individual, similar to SES.

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Discussion We have argued that because a discrete proximate mechanism corresponding to LH strategy such as the K-factor cannot be assumed, current approaches do not succeed in measuring reflections of such a latent variable. Acknowledgments The authors are thankful to George Richardson for motivating correspondence prior to the development of this manuscript.

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Biographies Stefan L. References Alessi G. Models of proximate and ultimate causation in psychology. The American Psychologist.

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Trends in Ecology and Evolution. Childhood experience, interpersonal development, and reproductive strategy: An evolutionary theory of socialization. Child Development. Latent variables in psychology and the social sciences. Annual Review of Psychology. Three Cs in measurement models: causal indicators, composite indicators, and covariates.

Psychological Methods. In defense of causal-formative indicators: A minority report. Latent variable theory. Measurement: Interdisciplinary Research and Perspective. Network analysis: An integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology. If a child dissociates often, this will also affect behavior.

Complexly traumatized children are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as self-harm, unsafe sexual practices, and excessive risk-taking such as operating a vehicle at high speeds. Children with complex trauma histories may have problems thinking clearly, reasoning, or problem solving. They may be unable to plan ahead, anticipate the future, and act accordingly. When children grow up under conditions of constant threat, all their internal resources go toward survival.

When their bodies and minds have learned to be in chronic stress response mode, they may have trouble thinking a problem through calmly and considering multiple alternatives. They may find it hard to acquire new skills or take in new information. They may struggle with sustaining attention or curiosity or be distracted by reactions to trauma reminders.

They may show deficits in language development and abstract reasoning skills. Many children who have experienced complex trauma have learning difficulties that may require support in the academic environment. Children learn their self-worth from the reactions of others, particularly those closest to them.

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Abuse and neglect make a child feel worthless and despondent. A child who is abused will often blame him- or herself. It may feel safer to blame oneself than to recognize the parent as unreliable and dangerous. Shame, guilt, low self-esteem, and a poor self-image are common among children with complex trauma histories. To plan for the future with a sense of hope and purpose, a child needs to value him- or herself.

Children surrounded by violence in their homes and communities learn from an early age that they cannot trust, the world is not safe, and that they are powerless to change their circumstances. Beliefs about themselves, others, and the world diminish their sense of competency. Their negative expectations interfere with positive problem-solving, and foreclose on opportunities to make a difference in their own lives. They have trouble feeling hopeful. The Adverse Childhood Experiences ACE Study is a longitudinal study that explores the long-lasting impact of childhood trauma into adulthood.

The ACE Study includes over 17, participants ranging in age from 19 to Results demonstrated the connection between childhood trauma exposure, high-risk behaviors e. The cumulative economic and social burden of complex trauma in childhood is extremely high. Costs for these nonfatal cases of child maltreatment are comparable to other high-cost health conditions i.

Such immeasurable losses may be the most significant cost of child maltreatment. Back to top Effects.

Complex trauma can affect children in a multitude of ways.